Friday, November 27, 2015

Pension File Stories: What we can learn from Joseph Thacker's Pension File

Joseph Thacker enlisted with Ohio 56th Infantry on October 31, 1861 and was part of Company I.  His enlistment papers, found in Joseph’s compiled military file,  give the following details:

Height: 5 foot 8 inches
Complexion: Dark
Eyes: Gray
Hair: Black
Occupation: Farmer
Place of Birth: Louisa County, Virginia
Age: 26

Joseph mustered out October 10, 1864 in New Orleans, LA. He would apply and be awarded a pension which was later revoked.

Joseph claimed that his wrist was injured during the time he was enlisted and that  he was crippled as a result of that injury.  He initially received a pension for this disability.  Then, after an investigation in 1873, he was dropped from the pension roles because it was concluded that he suffered the injury prior to joining the 56th in 1861.  New testimony was taken in 1882.

Several of his relatives were deposed in 1882 and their relationships were part of the investigation.  Though it would later be concluded that Joseph did not deserve the pension (which having read the file, I’m not sure this was a fair determination), the testimony given in the deposition has some interesting information about the relationships between some of the Thacker clan.

Below is verbatim testimony that I thought descendants of the Vinton County Group might find interesting.

Deposition A -  E.R. Leach taken at Raysville, Jackson County, Ohio  19 July 1882

Question: How long have you known Joseph Thacker?
Answer: Well, I have known him from the time I was fourteen years old. up to the time he enlisted and after the war to the present time. 

Question: Where did you first know him?
Answer: Right above Byer's Station about two miles southeast Washington township, Jackson County, Ohio.

Question: With whom did he live when you first knew him?
Answer: He lived with David Thacker, his father, I suppose.

Question: Is his father dead?
Answer: Yes, Sir, I think it was right close before the war.  I don't know the year he died.

Deposition B - John A. Thacker, 19 July 1882, Raysville, Jackson County, Ohio.

Question: When and where did you first know Joseph Thacker?
Answer: I expect him and me come from Va. together.  Our parents all travelled (sic) in a gang.  We had two or three wagons and we settled in Vinton Co.Ohio.  It was Gallia County, then.  I expect we lived together up to 1850, when his father moved away, some nineteen or twenty miles, to Byers Station Jackson County, Ohio.

Question: Are you a relative of his family?
Answer: Yes him and I are first cousins.

Deposition D - E.M. Thacker, 19 July 1882, Raysville, Jackson County, Ohio

Question: How long have you known Joseph Thacker
Answer: Knowed him ever since I knew myself. I knew Joe raised (as) boys together.

Question: Did you work with him at any time before the war?
Answer: Yes, Sir. A great-deal. Probably for ten years worked together and in sight because we lived on the same farm, that was in Gallia County, now Vinton County, Ohio.  His father moved out of our neighborhood may be fifteen years before the war but Joe staid (sic) in our neighborhood most of the time.  Worked for his uncle Thomas Thacker, not for me.

Question: Are you related to him?
Answer: Yes, Sir, first cousins.

Deposition E - Samuel Ray 19 July 1882, Raysville, Jackson County, Ohio.

Question: When did you first know Joseph Thacker?
Answer: He wasn't of age.  He ran away from his father and called on me on this farm for work.  I wouldn't give him labor till I heard from his father, and his father sent word for me to take him in and I did so.

Deposition G - Thomas Thacker 20 July 1882, Raysville P.O., Vinton County, Ohio

Question: What is your age?
Answer:  Well if I live to see my birthday I will be 73.

Question: When and where did you first know Joseph Thacker?
Answer: Well when - I can't say positively whether he was born in Va. or in Ohio.  I think it was Va. I knowed him all the time Wilkesville township, Vinton County, Ohio.  His father and me lived right close together, in sight of one another, for quite a number of years before the war.

Question: Are you a relative of Joseph Thacker?
Answer: Yes, Sir. Me and his father were half brothers.

Deposition H - J. F. Thacker, 20 July 1882, Rays P.O., Vinton County, Ohio

Question: What is your age?
Answer: I was 48 years old, the 7th day of April, last.

Question: Were you intimately acquainted with Joseph Thacker before the war?
Answer: I have been acquainted with him since me and him were little boys. We lived on the Raccoon, Vinton Co. - the most of our acquaintance was there when we were boys.

Question: Are you related to him?
Answer: My father and his father are half brothers that's what they tell me any how.

Deposition I - Thomas B. Thacker, 20 July 1882, Rays P.O., Vinton County, Ohio.

Question: What is your age?
Answer: I am 39 I reckon I was the third day of last December.

Question: Where did you first know Joseph Thacker?
Answer: Well in Wilkesville township I knowed him, I might say ever since I was a child.

Question: Are you related to him?
Answer: Yes, Sir. Second cousins, I reckon.

Deposition K - Benjamin Byers, 21 July 1882, Byer's Station, Jackson County, Ohio

Question: How was he using it, his right hand?
Answer: I can tell you now what he was doing. Well he was a chopping firewood for his father, the winter before he enlisted.

Question: Is his father living?
Answer: No Sir.

Question: When did he die?
Answer: He died about war time. I was away when he died.

Deposition M - Michael Barrett, 21 July 1882, Byer's Station, Jackson County, Ohio.

Question: Where did you first know him from?
Answer: Right here abouts.  They lived below me the next house. The old house is thrown down now.  He was raised right here as long as I knowed him. When I first knowed them they owned the land but the old folks are dead and the land gone. I was intimate with him before the war but he used to go to cousins of his at Raccoon and be sometimes absent for some months. I knowed him as well before the war as I knowed him since. We worked together many times. I seen him the very day he enlisted, he was cutting corn stalks in the same field where I was plowing in the fore noon, his brother was working along with me. We both was plowing and he cutting the corn stalks.  A man called to the fence to him and asked him to list, and he left the field and went out to him on the road. The man's name was William McLaughlin, I think was the man's name. I don't know where McLaughlin is now. I didn't know him well.

Question: Was his father living when he enlisted?
Answer: Yes Sir, he was.

Deposition T - Ebenezer Thacker, 24 July 1882, Sharonville, Pike County of Ohio.

Question: When did you first know Joseph Thacker?
Answer: I have knowed him every since I knowed myself.

Question: Are you a relative of his family?
Answer: I and Joe are cousins, first cousins.

Terry's Note: Ebenezer named his father as Edward in the deposition.  Could have been an error on the part of the note taker.

Deposition U - Edwill Thacker, 24 July 1882, Sharonville, Pike County, Ohio.

Question: What is your age?
Answer: If I live to see the 28th of August, I will be 70 years old.

Question: How long have you known Joseph Thacker?
Answer: Ever since he was born.

Question: Are you related to him?
Answer: Yes, Sir brothers and sisters children.   (Terry's note - I have no idea what that means!)

Deposition X - Fountain Thacker, 25 July 1882, Waverly, Pike County, Ohio

Question: When did you first know Joseph Thacker?
Answer: I have knowed him ever since I have knowed anybody.  I have knowed him all of my life.

Question: Did he live with your father at the time he enlisted?
Answer: He left my fathers and went back on to Pigeon Creek at his fathers. His father was living then. I think he was.

Question: Are you a relative of Joseph Thacker?
Answer: Yes Sir, second cousins.

Tuesday, April 1, 2014

The Death of Wed Napper, Malachi Dorton, and Dennison McGinnis

The following brief account of the death of Wed Napper, Malachi Dorton and Dennison McGinnis appears in Volume 1 of A Standard History of the Hanging Rock Iron Region of Ohio:


 “Among the early settlers in the vicinity of Hartley’s Mill were Peter Starr, a relative of Houdascheldt, who accompanied him to the locality; Isaac Hawk and his son, Benjamin Hawk, who settled in the northern part of the township in 1842 (Isaac died in 1863;   Benjamin Hawk, in 1865); Michael Carpenter, Ivory Thacker, Thomas Thacker, Holman Thacker, James McNeal, Louis Dowell, Malachi Dorton, Dennis McGinnis and W. Knapper. The last three were drowned at Hartley’s Mill in 1857 by the upsetting of a canoe in which they were rowing.

While the book clearly states the date of the tragedy as 1857, contemporary news reports of the time indicate that the accident occurred two years earlier, in 1855.


From the Jackson Standard, May 10, 1855:

Sad Occurrence, Two Men Drowned

A sad and mournful occurrence took place at the Mill known as Westfall’s Mill, in Vinton county, about sixteen miles from this place, on May 3d.  It appears that nine men had occasion to cross the creek just below the dam, all of whom got into a skiff or canoe with that intention; the vessel was headed towards the falls of the dam, for the purpose of frightening an individual that was in the company, but they ventured too far, and was taken under by the suck or whirlpool, two of the company, Denison McGinnis, and Wetherford Napper, were drowned, and the other seven, after great exertions narrowly escaped a watery grave. The bodies of the two unfortunate men were not found until Monday last.  Since writing the above we have learned that a Mr. Machia (sic) Dordan (sic), one of the persons that jumped into the water has died from the severe effect of strangulation.



From the McArthur Democrat, May 11, 1855:


We are informed that two men were drowned on the 1st inst., in crossing Raccoon in a canoe, at Berkhermar’s Mills, in this county.  One named Denison McGinnis, and Wed Napper.  We cannot get the facts and have heard several different tales about the manner of the accident.  We have also learned that the body of McGinnis was since found, near the breast of the dam.


And finally, from The Gallipolis Journal, May 17, 1855:

Three Lives Lost by Folly in Vinton County, Ohio

We find the following in the Chillicothe Metropolis of the 11th inst. It says:

“We learn from the Jackson Standard that a few days since nine men got into a canoe at Westfall’s Mill, in Vinton county for the purpose of crossing the creek. The men who had charge of the oars, for the purpose of frightening one or two who were timid, rowed the boat up close to the fall and suddenly the water struck and filled the little vessel.  The result was that two men, named Dennison McGinnis and W. Napper, were drowned, and M. Dordan (sic) so severely strangled that he died a day or two afterward with congestion of the brain.  The other’s escaped, with some difficulty.


Since there were nine men in the canoe, I suspect that the named men in Hanging Rock Iron Region volume starting with Michael Carpenter make up the remaining six individuals.  I was hoping for a confirmation in one of the newspaper accounts, but did not find anything to corroborate this.

Based on this information, Wetherfoot Napper and Dennis McGinnis died on May 3rd with Malachi Dorton died either on the 4th or 5th of May 1855 not 1857.




1.       A Standard History of The Hanging Rock Iron Region of Ohio, Volume 1, Eugene B. Willard, Ironton, General Supervising Editor, pages 574 -575 , The Lewis Publishing Company, 1916.

2.       Jackson Standard, May 10, 1855, Page 2, Column 1

3.       McArthur Democrat, May 11, 1855, Page 2 Column 1

4.       The Gallipolis Journal, May 17, 1855, Page 2 Column 4


Saturday, February 1, 2014

David (NO M) Thacker - or Why you should always look at source material instead of using the index or heaven forbid, scooping a name off someone else's family tree!

Okay, a couple of years ago I went on a disciplined rant to the tune of six separate posts on why Nimrod Nicholas Thacker's wife was Frances J. Thacker and not Mary Frances Grover (or Frances Mary Grover or Frances J. Grover.)  Success was limited, but I have noticed a few more trees with Frances's name listed correctly.  I'll take success where I can get it!

My latest pet peeve is the use of a middle initial "M" for David Thacker, husband of Sally Lemay Thacker.

Quick show of hands, how many of you have gotten sucked into using the middle letter "M?"  You can't see me, but my hand is raised, too.

I was doing some research and came across a David R. Thacker in some land records in Vinton County.  Well, I knew it wasn't  "my" David, because after all, my David had the middle initial of "M."  Still curious, I looked at the deed closely and I was correct, it wasn't my David.  But it got me thinking.  Where had I gotten the middle initial "M?"

I looked through all my bits and pieces of information I had on David. I couldn't find one instance of an M.

Below is the marriage bond for David Thacker and Sally Lemay.  See, no middle initial.

My next step was to search for "David M. Thacker" on Ancestry.  Ah, there he was - David M. Thacker, 1820 Census for Louisa County, Virginia.  Thank goodness, proof of the middle initial "M".  True, it was the only result that listed "my" David with an M, but at least, I had proof.

So wanting to bask in my "I'm a responsible researcher" persona, I clicked open the link to see my proof.
I looked at it, and "Oh, crap." 

By this time, I'd been doing enough research on my free colored ancestors to know what I was really looking at.  The "M" was actually a scrunched together version of the letters "FN" which stood for Free Negro.
Take a look:

Notice that David, unlike the next few gentlemen listed below him, had no marks on the left side of the sheet - only on the right.  The left side of the sheet tallies a family's white members, while the right side tallies slaves, and then free colored.

Here's a closer look at David's name:

When I first noticed the issue, I put a comment on Ancestry.  I blush to say that when I made the comment I used the examples of John Ivan, Winney Jackson, and Joseph Kennie.  I realize now, that Winney is actually Henry, but my error merely emphasizes the problem of reading almost two hundred year old handwriting. 

Here's a look at the John, Henry and Joseph's page and their postscript of "FN."

Note again, white members of the family appear on the left hand side, slaves and free colored on the right.

When this page was indexed, the indexer thought the letters were "FET." Below is a closer look:

Finally, one more example from the 1820 Louisa County Virginia Census found on

Below is Gilbert Gibson and Nathan Gibson.

The indexer this time correctly indexed the letters as "FN," however, they read Nathan's name as Rashad.
Below is a closer look:

You may be saying to yourself, "Sheesh, Terry, take a chill pill. It's only a little letter.  Why are you making a big deal about it?"

Well, there's a couple of reasons I am making a big deal about it.

1.  If I reject looking at documents for say, a David G. Thacker (or P or R etc.) because I am so darn sure it can't be "my David "( because his middle initial is "M"),  I may miss out on some useful information.

2. In point of fact, the "FN" distinction is definitely more important than the middle initial, given that this is the only census where David is listed as a Free Negro. In all the other censuses, David Thacker is listed as white.

 If you look in Paul Heinegg's list of tax records for Free Negroes you will notice that not one Thacker is listed. However, Sally Lemay's family is listed as Free Colored.  In 1816, when the two married they would have only been legally allowed to marry if they were both considered to be of the same race.  So, if David had been considered white at the time and Sally had been considered free colored, it would have been illegal for them to marry.   Which makes this "FN" designation a very big deal!

Figuring Out an Individual's mtDNA Ancestral Line

Below I am using my own pedigree to illustrate the line of an individual's mitochondrial DNA. If you have access to someone's pedigree chart you can easily see their mitochondrial line.  Mitochondrial DNA is passed from mother to child.  Both men and women have mitochondrial DNA, which is a very stable DNA, not easily given to mutations.

If you have access to the public family trees on (which is where this illustration came from) you can easily figure out someone's mitochondrial line.

1. Once you are in the person's chart change the view from Family view to Pedigree view.

2.  The bottom line of ancestors is the individual's mitochondrial DNA line.

It this instance, you can see my mitochondrial line goes from me (Teresa L. Snyder) to my mom, to my maternal grandmother (Katheryne C. Lynch), to her mother, my great grandmother (Laura Jane Feasel), to her mother, my gg grandmother (Elizabeth H. Armstrong) and not on the screen, Elizabeth's mother, my ggg grandmother (Leah M. Shupe).  This is as far as my research has taken me, but obviously, this line would go as far back as the beginning of my maternal line.

If you change the individual to my mother, you can see that her mtDNA line and mine are exactly the same (except now you can see my ggg grandmother, Leah Mary Shupe.)

But look what happens when I change the main individual to my dad.

My father's mtDNA goes through his mother (Anna Martha Schrader), to his maternal grandmother (Emma Augusta Gleffe), to her mother, dad's great grandmother (Pauline Gliffe), to her mother, dad's gg grandmother (Wilhelmine Bayack).

In the case of the Vinton County Group, we are looking for individual's whose mtDNA ancestral line goes back to the Napper, Thacker and Dorton women of the clan. As you can see by this, neither my father or I have the right mtDNA line to be tested.

Thursday, January 30, 2014

Thursday, January 23, 2014

Vinton County Newspapers included in Chronicling America Series

If you haven't checked it out, the Library of Congress program, "Chronicling America" has included images from Vinton County newspapers. Digitized newspapers include:

The McArthur Democrat - January 5, 1855 to December 28, 1865
The Vinton Record - January 4, 1866 to December 31, 1874
The Democratic Enquirer  - January 24, 1867 to January 15, 1873
The McArthur Enquirer - January 22, 1873 - January 7, 1874

Future plans include digitization of copies of The Jackson Standard from approximately the same era as the Vinton County papers. 

The above captured article appeared in The Vinton County Record, December 9, 1869, Page 2, Column 3.

Source: The Vinton record. (McArthur, Vinton County, Ohio), 09 Dec. 1869. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress. <>

Friday, September 13, 2013

New Ethnicity Estimates from

You'll remember that when Ancestry came out with their predictions of my ancestry, I wasn't all that impressed.

Below is a look at what they said my ethnicity was:

Today, some lucky Ancestry DNA customers got a first glimpse at a program they will be rolling out for all of their DNA customers over the next few months.

Count me as one of the lucky ones.  Below are the "new" ethnic predictions Ancestry has made for yours truly.

I'm still studying it, but I really do like the documentation and the graphics. 

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